Work Measurement Techniques & Tools in Industrial Engineering

 

Why we do work Measurement

There are many benefits to do work measurement as given:
  • To observe the passing record to develop the work.
  • Data educts for canalizing the task.
  • To set up some standards by proper research.
  • To educts a suitable person.
What are the advantages of work measurement: There are many advantages of work measurement. To collect data for canalizing the task for better development or upgrade the present sequence. They are as follow:

▫ Set Target: 

Work measurement helps to set the target of a task. Without the set targets, you can’t fulfill your work. From analyses of data from previous records, we can set a standard target. Example: Side seam join→ 1000 pcs per day (From past data)   Hourly Target = 1000/10 pcs                                                          =100 pcs per hours

Manpower allocation

How many workers will be allocated for the task? Work measurement can help us to calculate the manpower we needed. Example: Bottom hem→65 centi minutes │ 1min= 100cm 100*60=6000cm Hourly Target=6000/65 pcs Per hour                                               =92.30 pcs One operator can output=92.30 Our target is 100 pcs Manpower needed =100/92 pcs Work Measurement Techniques The techniques which are using to measure standard that is work measurement techniques. There are 3 techniques.
Work measurement techniques
Time Study: Directly observing an operator. -Predetermine motion time study: Analyzing the motion used to carry out the activity. Every motion has international standard value. Comparing with the basic standard for making our standard that is PMTS. -Past Record: Using previous record and study which is available in the factory. The records will be set up on the company book and this record we can set up our standard.

Time Study: 

Time study is a technique of work measurement for recording time of doing a certain job or its elements carried out under certain conditions at a defined rate of performance. There are various tools of time study.     ▫ Process cycle or operation cycle: Most of the works conducted on a mass scale have a repetitive nature. For example, a worker in an apparel Industry performs her job again and again. She takes a bundle of cut parts, opens the bundle, takes apart from it, position it to the machine, completes sewing, ties up the bundle, keep it aside and takes another bundle. This process continues all along. The series of movements from taking apart from a bundle, fitting it, putting to the needle, sewing the part and disposing the part to the bundle of sewn parts is called a process cycle. **Measure the work content in the task how long should it take a trained and motivated qualified operator to perform that task.

▫SMV: 

The standard of an operator is the time that a qualified operator should take to accomplish it if she works at the standard performance (at the rating of 100) and provided he/she takes the extra time allowed to her an allowance. SMV calculating by using the software name is sew-easy and GSD. SMV= Basic time + Allowance Basic time = observed time*observed rating Different types of allowances: Allowances mainly depended on the basic time. There are three types of allowances as below:
    Relaxation allowance (R/A): Relaxation allowance means time allowed for personal need and relives fatigue depend upon working conditions.
     Machine delay allowances (MDA): Time allowed for the unavoidable delay in machines. Such as bobbin change, thread breakage, Needle broken, Needle change, Rethreading, etc.
    Contingency Allowance (C/A): contingency allowance means other unavoidable delays occur during work such as:
         Power failure
         For instruction
         Special attention.
The first step in time study: To complete the time study you have to need to take some steps.
 
▫ Break down the work into elements: For observing the time study you have needed to break down the work into elements. As sewing time is short but handling time is long.
 

▫ Observed Time (OT):   

The time recorded by observing an operator while he is doing work. You need some instrument for observed time (a) Stopwatch (b) Study board and (c) Study sheet. ▫ Qualified worker: A qualified worker is a person who has the right skill and other attributes to accomplish a job up to a satisfactory level of quality, quantity, and safety.

▫ Observed Rating (O.R): 

The base in which a qualified worker performs a task. Standard Rating always 100%

Rating:

The rating means how much efficiencies are the content of a worker. After observe we can give a rating. Rating = (Observed Rating/ Standard Rating)*100 Why we need a rating? There are various reasons to need a rating. They are as below: The standard worker is not available all the time. Different people take different times. Purpose of rating: Compare the observed worker with a qualified worker. Convert the observed time to a time a qualified worker world likely to take. The problems of rating: When we are doing rating then we facing some problem they are below: Rating is an assessment, not a measurement. It is subjective. Need experience for rating The how-to rating can be done: We can do rating by such way as below: Established in mind how standard operator should work Compear the effectiveness of the observed worker in terms of skill and effort. Read also Time Study Techniques

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